Vacuum capacitors are used in a wide variety of applications that require the generation and management of high power radio frequency energy. The vacuum capacitor is extremely stable in electrical characteristics, has extremely low internal dissipation factor (loss) and withstands electrical overloads, such as lightning, with less damage than other types of capacitors. The vacuum capacitor is a key component in high frequency RF generators, industrial RF process applicators and antenna systems operating from low frequency through VHF, at power levels reaching and exceeding 1,000,000 watts. Both air-cooled and water-cooled vacuum capacitors, in fixed and variable styles are used. Vacuum capacitors are employed in broadcast transmitters for long wave, medium wave (MW or AM), short wave, and VHF (FM and TV). They also serve in broadcast antenna systems, particularly in AM directional antenna phasing systems, diplexers, triplexers and line tuning units. Vacuum capacitors find wide application in industrial applications of radio frequency energy. High power RF systems are found in RF dielectric heating devices such as RF welders, radiofrequency sealers, RF process heating such as drying and baking ovens. The ubiquitous vacuum capacitor finds frequent application in such medical RF areas as MRI, CAT scanners, RF surgery, and high power particle accelerators. High power RF devices also use vacuum capacitors to help generate RF energy for laser systems, plasma generators, semiconductor foundries, research RF applications, and more.